Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Your Barn Door is On Display

After I buttressed the Pi as best as I could, I constructed a simple webapp to allow users to view the security cam feed and activate the button on the garage remote. It was surprisingly straight-forward to render an MJPEG feed on an HTML5 canvas, but it took a bit more doings to expose GPIO as a minimal REST call.

Before I could deploy the webapp a few additional packages needed to be deployed for Python to access everything:
  1. Installed python-distribute so we can use Python's easy_install
  2. Installed pip using easy_install (how meta) so we can easily install application dependencies
  3. Installed libapache2-mod-wsgi to permit Apache to act as a Python application server
  4. Cloned the GarageSecurity repository, which includes the Bottle webapp and some admin configs/scripts
  5. Installed GarageSecurity's dependencies using pip install -r pip_requirements.txt
  6. Allowed www-data to access the GPIO port using the WiringPi utility

One big condition I held was that the webapp should not be granted root access, even if it was indirect access with a setuid script. The WiringPi utilities allow one to create GPIO devices handles that can be accessed by an unprivileged user such as www-data. By adding an entry within /etc/rc.local for the WiringPi utility the devices will be created on boot for use by a user within the gpio group. The WiringPi Python libraries then use these devices to control the GPIO pins. This took a few hours of experimentation, and a huge amount of thanks go to Sebastian Ă–sterlund's WiringPi post for helping me figure this out.

One could use a REST framework such as WebIOPi to expose GPIO access over a REST interface, but it looked like this implementation needed privilaged access and the webapp didn't require 99% of the features that WebIOPi ships with. Instead, I leveraged Bottle to expose the WiringPi library as a REST call, which permits a client-side application to issue a remote call and active the garage door remote.

The MJPEG stream provided by Motion for the camera was only bound to the localhost interface, however I proxied it through Apache for external exposure. Multipart MJPEG streams are not directly supported by many browsers anymore; instead it is fairly straightforward exercise to have JavaScript functions fetch the stream and then paint the images directly onto an HTML5 canvas. This surprisingly just took eight lines of JavaScript to accomplish; it took me more time to figure out how to scale the viewport and a button for mobile devices than it took to render the webcam feed.

I know I'm definitely not early to the garage door hacking scene - there are several other projects using Arduino with mobile front-ends, some adapted to use the Raspberry Pi with relays, others with wireless interfaces and mobile webapps. I'm a bit partial to this approach because it has a fairly low part count (one resistor, one MOSFET, some wire, a mini breadboard, one universal garage door remote, a cheap webcam and a Raspberry Pi), it doesn't use relays and the web application does not require privilaged access to low-level resources.

Feel free to check out the evolving webapp - it is now managed under GitHub at http://github.com/deckerego/GarageSecurity/. I will continue tweaking it a bit and eventually fitting it with some sort of user interface, but I also want to move along and use Motion's External Commands to e-mail me whenever it detects motion. Unfortunately HP's HD-3110 has an auto-focus that keeps kicking on and registering as a motion event, so I might dig deeper to see how to disable the feature. Of course I still need an enclosure as well... right now bare wire and board are just sitting out on a shelf. One stray squirt gun and all is lost.

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